The Thrill of F4

Quick Summary:

  • Use the F4 key on your keyboard to toggle from a relative cell reference through the three variations of absolute cell references.
  • The F4 key works for this application in Microsoft Office Excel and Google Sheets.


Via a few effective examples, Mike “ExcelIsFun” Girvin explains cell references and the time-saving advantages of using F4 in the following video. He specifically covers the F4 keyboard shortcut starting around 3:25.

Mike also teaches a broader, productive lesson of analytical inquiry and the benefits of tinkering, when he observes:

“This is getting annoying.”

And he asks:

“There’s got to be a way in Excel, instead of having to create all these formulas by hand — there’s got to be a way to tell Excel…

Let us know what you think.

If you use a spreadsheet program other than Microsoft Office Excel or Google Sheets , let us know how absolute cell references are manipulated therein.

Find Full Names on LinkedIn

Quick Summary:

Find the name or full name of a person of interest in LinkedIn via the People Also Viewed list, typically located in a right-hand menu on the search results page.


For whatever reason, you would like to find the full name, say, of a CIO at Company X whose name appears as Jon S. in a LinkedIn search result.

One simple solution is to take advantage of the People Also Viewed list that typically appears on the right-hand side of a person’s profile. In our experience, only full names appear in the People Also Viewed list. So, while you’re viewing Jon S’s profile, click on the first person in his People Also Viewed list. You may see Jon S’s full name in that person’s People Also Viewed list. The second line of information (usually the person’s job title) will help you confirm the match. If Jon S’s full name doesn’t appear, try the next person on Jon S’s People Also Viewed list. And so on.